Göbeklitepe is a discovery that has been quite popular in recent years, indeed deserving. Different media, different groups are discussed and discussed at different degrees of influence. Now everyone is aware that this is a very important place, but it is not possible to say why the importance of the information is as common as the information. This article explains why Göbeklitepe is important…
|Göbeklitepe, Source: web2|
I will not go much into the excavation area, its history, the form of finds or anything. Because of the popularity I mentioned above, many information in this direction is easily accessible. Nevertheless, I have added a few reliable internet sources and books to the end of the article.
In fact, there are three clear reasons why the corebelly is important. The first is the old, the second is the widely known physical qualities, and the third is the meaning that is at least as important as the first two, which is discussed in archeology and history rather than in popular settings. I intend to briefly mention the first and the second, and the third.
Antiquity en It is believed that the oldest finds in this area date back to 11,600 years ago, around 9,600 BC, and hold the title of En The Oldest Temple in the World üyle on the assumption that they were made for ceremonial purposes. To be the oldest of anything undoubtedly gives you a well-deserved reputation.
The second is the mastery of making the resulting works. Göbeklitepe comes to mind when we first saw the T-shaped carved in a certain order, some of the giant obelisks with figurative reliefs on them. Today, it is known that these stones are still in the structures we do not fully understand and that many of the structures and obelisks that are unearthed are still under the ground.
These structures and obelisks are thought to have been built between 9,600 BC and 8,000 BC. And here comes a very important situation that makes Göbeklitepe unique. So far, nearly 300 of them have been unearthed, some of them up to 7 meters in height, weighing tons of gigantic obelisks cut and quarried about half a kilometer away here, processed and sewed up to the feet of this day’s technology is much more difficult than our mind can take. In order to be a bit concrete, it can be said that neither wheel nor metal were used at the time, that is, only wooden and stone tools were at the disposal of man and animal power.
|A prediction about the construction of buildings and their original states. Since there is no clue as to whether the structures have a roof, it is not possible to make a definitive judgment.
In addition, the human, animal and plant motifs embroidered on the obelisks, which are thought to be stylized human statues, are both admirable and astonishing given both the dates in question and the tools that can be used.
Today, archaeologists continue to produce comments on how the obelisks and these figures are made and what they mean.
Yes, these are the aspects of Göbeklitepe, which have not yet been fully elucidated, that archaeologists and historians still discuss.
However, there is another aspect of Göbeklitepe that contributes to the questioning of the long-established assumptions about one of the most important questions of humanity and thus leads to important debates in the scientific world.
The question is: How did we get into settled life and is there a link between the transition to settled life and the emergence of religion?
|Göbeklitepe with new protection roof. web4|
As almost everyone knows, human beings lived in much of their history, namely the completion of their evolution from the Neolithic Age to the Neolithic Age. This was a way of life that continued by acquiring the herbal and animal nutrients offered by nature to its name and by migrating to new places if they were depleted. In fact, it can be said that animals are always hunter-gatherers, and even today there are societies that continue the traditions of Hunter-gatherers, such as the Aborigines and some tribes in Africa.
So what happened first around 9,000 BC In various regions of Mesopotamia, the hunter-gatherer groups left the nomad and started to settle in the same place for 12 months, to establish small villages and cities?
And in relation to some of these questions, how did religions come into being, what function did they have?
It is difficult to answer these questions, and archaeologists and historians have long been seeking answers to these questions, discussing the comments produced, and especially following the Neolithic excavations in Mesopotamia and the surrounding area with excitement.
Until recently, the most widely held view was:
Hunter-Gathering> Agricultural Revolution> Resident Life> Religion
In other words, the Hunter-Collectors realized the most important revolution in the history of mankind, the Agricultural Revolution, which means that they regularly planted seeds, breeding, breeding, harvesting, taming animals and benefiting from them, and as a result of this they took care of plants and animals and abandoned the nomad to collect the harvest. whether they had to move to settled life. Of course, this revolution, which I have summarized so simply, is a much more complicated process. (For more information about this process, see the great documentary series I provided in web1 source)
Most scientists thought that the Hunter-Collectors did not have a concept that could be described as religion, and that religion was the result of the transition to settled life.
It is precisely in this sense that Göbeklitepe emerged as a shocking and controversial situation. Because this area was probably built to host a number of rituals that could be considered religious, and it was very likely that those who built these structures were not the settled groups but the Hunter-Collectors.
In the meantime, I need to give you some caution. First, what was meant as “religion i was not the same in every period. In other words, it may be wrong to think that around 9,000 BC religions or rituals are the same as today’s religions and rituals. Again, there are very few clues about the functions of these structures and the lives of those who build them, so it is more accurate to speak about the possibilities, not the exact judgments. On-going excavations and research on this subject will perhaps strengthen these possibilities, or perhaps create new possibilities. This is exactly the nature of what we call science.
For example, the greatest evidence presented today that these structures were probably built by the Hunter-Collectors is that there are still no traces of a settlement large enough to accommodate these structures in the immediate vicinity for a maximum of 12 months. It won’t be obvious, perhaps after a while, a trace or a different tip will be found and the comments updated. However, the strongest possibilities for today are the fact that this place was built by the Hunter-Collectors as I mentioned above.
In other words, the long-accepted, people realized the Agricultural Revolution in the Neolithic Age, started to settled life and the opinion that could be summarized as religion emerged lost some of its validity with Göbeklitepe. After this discovery, the idea that the Hunter-Collectors might have built structures to perform various rituals, perhaps in certain regions of the year, could be gathered in certain regions.
Some experts even comment on the fact that religions lead to settled life by reversing the old view that settled life leads to religions.
In addition, the topics that were started to be discussed again in the scientific world with Göbeklitepe were the life levels of the hunter-gatherer groups. Until Göbeklitepe, hunter-gatherers were thought to have lived a very simple life and did not have sophisticated art and technology. However, the finds at Göbeklitepe give clues that the Hunter-Collectors may have more complex technical skills than we ever thought, the ability to organize hundreds of people to work together, perhaps an improved social hierarchy and a rich aesthetic, symbolizing repertoire, abstract thinking.
Together with Göbeklitepe, the theories that advanced symbolization, religious rituals and monumental architecture are the product of settled life can no longer be strongly supported.
Finally, let us conclude that this area was included in the World Heritage Temporary List by UNESCO in 2011 and in the Permanent List in 2018, meaning that this area is now an area that we should look at as human beings.
You can watch the presentations of the symposium in Göbeklitepe in 2012 Şu
Presentation 1: Trevor Watkins
Presentation 3: BG Sidharth
Göbeklitepe documentary by National Geographic:
Wikipedia’s Göbeklitepe article is not bad:
The most reliable in books, the book of the excavation director Klaus Schmidt:
There are many more books, but I don’t vouch for them because I haven’t read them.
web3: http://www.gazetebilkent.com/2018/01/16/iskenderden-once-dunya-i-gobekli-tepe-ve-sembolizm-i/ web4:
With love and respect to the late Klaus Schmidt, who has devoted his life to the discovery of remains and information, which has played a major role in the discovery of Göbeklitepe