Perge


For a long time I could not visit the ancient city or write. When I came to Antalya to join Runatolia, I said, let’s stop by a Perge, as always with friends. I said, but the friends did not come as enthusiastic as me and some 5-star hotels, some towards Şişçi Ramadan. (Ahu-Emre reveals). Anyway, I would like to share the photos I took while traveling Perge on my own with the information I gathered from the information sheets and books in the ancient city.

First, an important difference that separates the ancient cities of the Mediterranean from those in the Aegean is that they have survived much longer. Many ancient cities such as Perge, Aspendos and Sagalassos have survived compared to the Aegean. This is probably due to the fact that the Mediterranean is more fortunate than the Aegean in terms of earthquakes and that the stars of the cities of the Aegean and the Western Mediterranean shone early and the stars of the cities of the Central Mediterranean shine late. Cities like Miletus, Priene, Pergamon are stellar cities of the Archaic-Classical and Hellenistic periods, while cities like Perge, Side and Aspendos are stellar cities of the Roman period. Exceptionally, Ephesos, one of the most perceptible cities in the Aegean, owes this feature to both the intensity of the studies in this area and the state capital in the Roman period.HISTORY

Perge is a shining city, especially during the Roman period. Therefore, the majority of the structures that survive today are from this period. However, as in almost every settlement in Anatolia, it has a history that begins with prehistoric finds and goes back to the Trojan War and Hittite texts.

Perge City Plan (Information sign) and the suggested itinerary

The most tidy narrative of history is on the information plate at the entrance to the archaeological site. Transfer from there:

18 18 km from Antalya. Perge is one of the most organized cities not only of Pamphylia Region but of all of Anatolia with its planning based urban model and structuring character within Roman cities. It is known that the Akhalar came to the Pamphylia Region, where Perge was also found, from one of the inscriptions dating back to 120-121 AD and dated to 120-121 AD. These inscriptions, which are closely related to the colonization of Perge, are seven and were written from the two-storey niches in the wall enclosing the oval courtyard, possibly on the pedestals of the statues placed inside the top. Although the statues have not survived until today, their pedestals are still intact. Among these heroes, the legendary founders of the city are the names Riksos, Labos, Kalkhas, Makhaon, Leonteus, Mimyas and Maphos. When the origins of the cistuses in these inscriptions are examined and philological researches are taken into consideration, it is observed that Perge had the XII. century Akha colonization is concluded. It is known that after the Trojan wars, some Greek heroes followed the coast of Western Anatolia to return to their homeland and chose the southern route. These include Kalkhas, Leonteus, Amphilokhos, Polypoties and Podaleirios. Thus, it is understood that five of the seven hero founders of Perge were from the people who founded cities in South Anatolia after the Trojan wars. When the origins of the cistuses in these inscriptions are examined and philological researches are taken into consideration, it is observed that Perge had the XII. century Akha colonization is concluded. It is known that after the Trojan wars, some Greek heroes followed the coast of Western Anatolia to return to their homeland and chose the southern route. These include Kalkhas, Leonteus, Amphilokhos, Polypoties and Podaleirios. Thus, it is understood that five of the seven hero founders of Perge were from the people who founded cities in South Anatolia after the Trojan wars. When the origins of the cistuses in these inscriptions are examined and philological researches are taken into consideration, it is observed that Perge had the XII. century Akha colonization is concluded. It is known that after the Trojan wars, some Greek heroes followed the coast of Western Anatolia to return to their homeland and chose the southern route. These include Kalkhas, Leonteus, Amphilokhos, Polypoties and Podaleirios. Thus, it is understood that five of the seven hero founders of Perge were from the people who founded cities in South Anatolia after the Trojan wars. It is known that after the Trojan wars, some Greek heroes followed the coast of Western Anatolia to return to their homeland and chose the southern route. These include Kalkhas, Leonteus, Amphilokhos, Polypoties and Podaleirios. Thus, it is understood that five of the seven hero founders of Perge were from the people who founded cities in South Anatolia after the Trojan wars. It is known that after the Trojan wars, some Greek heroes followed the coast of Western Anatolia to return to their homeland and chose the southern route. These include Kalkhas, Leonteus, Amphilokhos, Polypoties and Podaleirios. Thus, it is understood that five of the seven hero founders of Perge were from the people who founded cities in South Anatolia after the Trojan wars.

However, in the light of the researches carried out in the Acropolis, it was found that Perge, whose prehistoric history dates back to the Late Chalcolithic Age (BC V. millennium BC) and which is connected to the Western Anatolian Early Bronze Age ceramic repertoire during the II millennium BC, has been inhabited since prehistoric times.

On the other hand, remarkable information about the city was obtained from the cuneiform texts engraved in Hittite on the bronze plate found in the Hattusha (Bogazkoy / Corum) excavations in 1986, the capital of the Hittite Empire. This document, which contains an official agreement between Hittite King Tuthalia IV (1265-1215) and Vasal King Kurunta, shows that Perge occupies an important place during the Hittite Empire. Lev The Kaštarja River borders the region of the city of Parha. And if the Hatti King draws a field for him and takes the city of Parha under force by gun, the city will be connected to the King of Tarhuntaśša. Geçmek Parha word Perge; The Kaštarja River is integrated with the Kestros River.

Excavations and research carried out in the ancient city of Perge to this day have shown that this city had bright times independently of each other. The first of these periods is the Hellenistic Period (II-II century BC), represented by its magnificent towers. Alexander the Great in 333 BC during the seizure of the region, without any resistance of the Compasses Alexander’s forces to host the city, is connected to the lack of walls that protect the city.

Perge benefited from the blessings of the long-lasting peace and wealth provided by Pax Romana, known as Roma Roman Peace de during the successive Roman Period, and today has many public buildings such as theater stadiums, agora, monumental fountains and baths, many of which are standing. .

Perge’s last golden age on the stage of history is the period that marked the new era and developed under the influence of Christianity. MS V. and VI. The city became a metropolitan center within the church organization and monumental basilica was built in the city.

Perge, located on the ancient road route starting from Bergama and ending in Side, owes its development to Aksu (Kestros) Stream. Tea, which is not suitable for transportation, played an important role in providing transportation to the city in addition to making the soil fertile in the past. It is known that Apostle Paulos and his friends sailed from Paphos Port in Southern Cyprus and reached Perge. There is no doubt that this can only happen through Kestros. This integration of the city with the river is understood from the statues of the River God Kestros, which can be seen today in coins, reliefs and the monumental fountain on the southern skirt of the Acropolis.

Among the personalities of the history of the city; famous in astronomy, geometry and mathematics, Apollonius with Compass takes the first place. Another famous name is MS. Province. Varus was a philosopher who lived in the 16th century. Although many gods and goddesses are worshiped in Perge, Artemis has a special place in them. The cult of the goddess known as Artemis Pergaia in the city was spread and worshiped in neighboring cities and even overseas. It is stated that the authors of the Antique Period are located on a high hill outside the city; the location of the Temple of Artemis, which they describe as magnificent in size, beauty and structure, is still undetermined.

The excavations carried out by the Department of Archeology of Istanbul University since 1946 in the Perge Ancient City, which was included in the UNESCO World Heritage Temporary List in 2009, have been carried out by the Antalya Museum Directorate on behalf of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism since 2012. ”

The excavation history and earliest records of Perge are summarized in Şefik Gür’s book “Anatolian Civilizations şöyle as follows:

Ilk The first scientific research in the ancient city of Perge was initiated in 1946 and continued to date at various intervals. Excavations at Perge were conducted by archaeologists from Istanbul University. The excavations were made by Prof. Arif Müfid Mansel, Prof.Dr. Askdil Akarca, Professor Jale Inan realized this. Today, the excavations. Haluk Abbasoğlu continues In some inscriptions within the Hellenistic gate of the city, the names of the mythological founders of the city are mentioned. However, the names mentioned in the inscription are not really the first founders of the city. The foundation of the city is based on these mythological names BC. A written Hittite document proves that it went far back than 1200. On a bronze plate in Boğazköy in 1986, the text of the Hittite King IV Tuthalijas (1265-1215 BC) reads:“From the Saranduva area, the sea is the border to it. From the area of ​​Parha city, Kastaraja River is the border and if the King of Hatti rushes against them and seizes the land of Parha by gun, it will also belong to the king of Tarhuntasa ”(H. Otten, Die Bronzetafel aus Boğazköy, Wiessbaden 1988)

The word Parha in this text is identical to Perge and the Kastaraja River is identical to the Kestros River right next to Perge. ”

BUILDINGS

Approaching the city, theaters and stadiums are the first to welcome visitors. Quite well preserved buildings. My suggestion is that you first take a quick tour of the stadium, then start at the gates and leave the theater to the end.Stadium

The Perge stadium is in a very good condition and it is both picturesque and architecturally impressive both inside and out. We also get the following information about the stadium from the sign in the excavation area:

Komşu The stadium adjacent to the Perge Theater, which is located outside the city walls, is one of the best stadiums from the Antiquity to the present. The structure, built on smooth ground, cut from limestone blocks, which are the natural stone of the region supported by vaults, is in the north-south direction. The southern part of the structure, which has a north-facing sphendone apse, is open. The total length of the stadium is 234.00 meters. Approximately 34.00 m. The width of the jogging area was separated from each other by a wall built at a later period.

5 doors are opened to the arena, one of which is north, two of them are east and two of them are west. Again, there are 8 vertical stairs with 22 steps in the Arena. The structure consists of 11 rows of seats, each resting on 70 arches, thirty on both long sides and 10 on the short side. The height of the sitting steps is 0.436 meters and the width is 0.630 meters. The highest level is 3.70 m. The vaults to the east, west and north of the structure face the outside. Approximately 5.70 m. width and 9.84 m. It is thought that these regulations, which are deep in depth, are used as workshops or shops for economic production and commercial activities. The building, which was thought to have started in the second half of the 1st century AD, has approximately 12,000 people. ”

Stadium from outside. These vaulted spaces, which constitute the infrastructure of the audience rows, were 
used for shops and similar functions.
Stadium. As with many stadiums, the curved end of the Perge stadium was 
confined to a wall / space and transformed into a theater-like area. 
In late stadiums, we 
often encounter this change to allow gladiatorial fights and other events .

In the book titled ve Antalya and Its Surroundings “, Anita Gillett quoted the stadium as follows:

“The ruins of Perge’s 2nd century AD stadium are on the road to the theater. The second largest building after the theater in Perge, the stadium is a horseshoe shaped 34 m. x 33 m in size and open to the south, the stadium can accommodate up to 12,000 people. On the walls of some rooms, the name of the shop owner and the trade he is engaged in are written.

For the wild animal demonstrations, the northern end of the stadium was surrounded by a protective railing and was thus used as an arena. The city gates were on the north, west and south sides of the city walls. The late period and the south gate open to a small courtyard and after the courtyard another gate in the form of triumphal arch is reached. After this victory, 92 m. x 46 m. and a horseshoe-shaped courtyard.

There was a monumental fountain on the western wall of this courtyard. There was a pool in front of the fountain and the two-storey front facade behind the pool was very decorated. It was dedicated to Artemis Pergaia and Septimius Severus, his wife, Julia Donna, and their two sons. Marble sculptures of Septimius Severus and his wife, sculpture pieces on the front of the fountain and other pieces are exhibited in the Antalya Museum today. ”

After the stadium, we can proceed to the city’s magnificent southern entrance. This entrance area is a bit complicated. Multiple doors and plugs can be confusing. So let’s first understand what the area is like from the model in the field:

Model of the entrance area

Roman Gate

This is the first gate (after the theater and stadium) to enter the city. The information plate contains the following information about this door:

Per In Perge, where many secondary gates were built during the construction of the city walls; There are three main city gates to the west, east and south. Two of these three gates in the Lower City are from the Hellenistic Period and the Roman Period. Septimius Severus Square, which is approximately 72.00 meters long, is among these gates. MS Il. century or at the end of the III. The gate, which was thought to have been built in the early 19th century, is one of the city’s impressive monuments.

The Roman Gate, which was built during the Roman period and is part of the gigantic defense system surrounding the whole city, is approximately 24.00 m. long. There are five niche arrangements on the northern façade of the gate, which has a preserved height of 10.00 meters. The spaces between these niches are activated by smaller rectangular niches. The niche on the central axis of the gate is still used for the transition to the big city square. The north façade is adorned with magnificent vaults, architectural ornaments and sculptures that emphasize the grandeur and prestige of the city.

On the other hand; the north-facing interior of the gate, AD III. century with the Syrian type pediment made of marble added to the monumental. ”

Restitution of the Roman Gate. I think it’s the city. 
The sign in the field.
Today’s status of the Roman Gate. The side of the city.

After passing through the Roman Gate, we encounter the Hellenistic Gate which was built before.

Hellenistic Gate

In fact, the glorious door, which has remained behind the theater and stadium and even a few buildings, was built during the Hellenistic period and developed during the Roman period.

The archaeological site has the following information about the gate:

H To the north of Septimius Severus Square, the Hellenistic City Gate, built of limestone, is one of the oldest and most impressive buildings in the city. III. The building was dated to the 19th century and was supported by two oval towers and vaults designed symmetrically. In the background, the rear door, 23.00 x 30.00 m. sized horseshoe (U) shaped courtyard is raised with walls on both sides.

The three-storey oval towers, which were preserved at their original height, played an important role in the city defense during the Hellenistic Period. However, during the Roman period, some additions were added to the structure, and an ornate and arched door was built between the two towers. An architrave consisting of triglyph and metope arrangements was placed on the upper part of the door decorated with Paye capitals.

In addition to this new gate built between the towers, the walls on both sides of the towers that limit the courtyard are also added later. There are 28 niches in the upper and lower part of these walls. The inscribed statue bases found in the niches mentioned above support the use of the courtyard for political propaganda. On the inscriptions, the names of the legendary founders of Perge and the nobles who supported the development of the city were written. ”

Proposal for restitution on the original status of the Hellenistic Gate. 
(From the plate in the excavation area)
The present situation of the Hellenistic Gate.
Oval courtyards and niches behind the Hellenistic Gate.

Şefik Gür describes the oval courtyard and niches behind the gate as follows: century. On the walls forming the oval courtyard of this fortification gate, there are 14 niches in each wall, 7 at the bottom and 7 at the top. The 6 niches on both sides of the lower floor belong to the period when the door was built. The 7th niches near the towers and all the niches on the upper floor were opened later in the 2nd century AD during the Plankia Magna period. In the oval courtyard, 9 statue bases with founder names were found. 7 of them have the name of mythological founder and 2 of them have the founder name of Plankia Magna period. The translations of these epigraphs are as follows: ”

(I put pictures of those I can match)

The son of Pandeion, the son of Lykos Riksos, founder of Athens (I’m not sure)
Delphos Founding Labos (Not sure)
Thes tor’s son, the founder of Kalkos of Argos
The son of Asclepius, founder Thessaliali Makhaor (I’m not sure)
Leonteus, the son of Koronos (I’m not sure)
Ary’s son Ialmenos son Orkhomenoslu founding Minyas
Apollo’s son, founder Delphi Mopsos

When we leave the courtyard, we pass right under the door in honor of the visit of Emperor Hadrianus. Of course, if we lived in that period. Today we walk through the ruins of this gate.

Hadrian’s Jewelry

Hadrian is an interesting emperor. He loves Greek culture and travels twice in Greece and Anatolia between 120-130. The second, in other words, during his visit to the Emperor, the cities, which were aware of the trip long before he reached the cities, were building doors and plugs on his behalf. For this reason, in many cities we come across Hadrian’s gate or jewelry. Athens, Antalya, Perge are some of them. Ephesus also had a door and a temple in the name of Hadrianus.

The plate in the field about Tak contains the following information:Tak Located at the starting point of the Columnar Main Street, which is the main artery of Perge, just north of the Hellenistic Towers, which have an oval plan, it consists of three arches and has two floors.

Tak, as the name suggests, was built by Plancia Magna during the reign of the emperor Hadrianus (117-138 AD), bearing the titles of kız the daughter of the city, the nun of Artemis, the demiorgos, the nun of the Mother of Gods, a devout and patriot for life ».

As observed in many buildings in Perge, only four pylons have survived from the building rising on a podium. It is understood from the inscription on the middle belt that is expected to be placed on the second floor of the jewelry that «Plancia Magna dedicated the jewelry to the homeland».

Greek and Latin inscriptions on the tomb; It is understood that the building was equipped with extraordinary statues during the period of construction. According to the inscriptions mentioned, the gods such as Artemis Pergaia, Tykhe, Diva Matidia and the sculptures of emperors such as D vus Augustus, Divus Nero, Divus Trainus, Hadrianus and the wives of the emperors such as Mariaina, Plotina and Sabina took their places on the plates. Thus, as well as aesthetic beauty, Hadrian and his family also served political purposes by hosting statues of Roman emperors who had not suffered damnatio memoriae. ”

Restitution of Hadrian’s Jewelry. 
(From the plate in the excavation area)
We pass through the remains of Hadrian’s Arch to the Colonnaded Street.
Before moving forward on the Colonnaded Street, we visit the South Bath, the first of the 2 large baths on the left.South Bath

Hammam in a classic Roman bath layout. He came to our day quite robust. Information about the structure is given on the plate in the excavation area as follows:

Güney Excavations of the Southern Bath, one of the two largest baths of the city, were carried out between 1978 and 1985. This bath, which is designed in the northeast-southwest extension of the adjacent structure without being connected to any symmetrical plan, consists of four main sections: apodyterium, frigidarium, tepidarium and caldarium.

As observed in the other Roman baths in the Pamphylia region, visitors to the South Bath, which consisted of adjacent rooms, first visit the apodyterium, which acts as a dressing room with shelves on its walls. These apodyteriums, which are generally rectangular in plan, have rows of stone or wood.

In addition to this unit, the swimming pool, which is probably used as a cleaning place after the training in the palaestra, is passed to the natatio.

Plan of the Southern Bath. (From the plate in the excavation area)
Palaestra on the left, Hammam on the right

Next to the aforementioned space, there is an apsidal cold section and a frigidarium. This section is followed by a warm (tepidarium) and a collapsed heating system with a hypokaust and a temperature section (caldarium).

After the propylon in the east, the palaestrade where young people exhibit their physical activities is started. Just to the north of the Palaestra, the so-called Claudius Peison Gallery comes from the inscription on the statue base in the corridor through the frigidarium.

It has different building phases and it was built by I. I. and II. The excavations in the South Bath dates back to the 16th century. century mosaics and walls were covered with marble slabs. On the other hand, Athena, Aphrodite, Nemesis, Hygieia, Asklepious, Genius, known from Greek mythology, as well as the group of sculptures known as «three beauties» and the nun sculptures, should have been like an art gallery when it was in use. ”

An image of the new heat from the caldarium. Awesome belts…

There is a food market Macellum right across the bath. This market, which consisted of a square courtyard surrounded by shops and with a circular Tyke temple in the middle, probably similar to the one in Side, was one of the liveliest areas of the city at that time.

Agora / Macellum

Perge agora is one of the most understandable surviving agoras I have ever seen. Shops, semi-open space in front of them, doors can be easily perceived. The circular structure in the middle is quite interesting. At first glance it resembles a temple dedicated to the goddess Tykhe in the middle of the Side agora, but much larger than that. This structure and the agora are not fully understood yet.

“Perge Agora provides a reference to one of the most organized settlements of Anatolian Rome with its urban model and structuring character based on planning. The Agora, which is located to the east of the Hellenistic entrance, is surrounded by a large stoa. Around it is a sidewalk surrounded by columned galleries. There are shops behind the galleries, whose ground is covered with decorated floor mosaics. Unlike its counterparts in Anatolia, the doors of the shops in the Perge Agora are alternatively arranged to open inwards and outwards. In the center of the four porticoes of the building are the entrance sections. The opening on the west side was used as the main entrance. Considering the natural slope of the area, it is possible to say that the spaces in the south are two-storey.

Formerly known as Agora, the building was also called Macellum because of the sale of luxury products such as perfume as well as meat and fish. 
Turkey is the second largest in terms of size Agora space, it consists of three nested frames. Approximately 51.00 x 51.00 m. internal dimensions, compacted soil. The circular tholos in the middle of the building may have a temple premise as observed in Side. However, it is also thought that during the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) period, a wall was built into the podium of the tholos and used as a holy spring. ”

Agora
Signboard showing the fisherman.
Circular structure in the middle.
Restitution of circular structure. (Plate + Photoshop)
Columned Streets

One of Perge’s most glorious sides is the enormous boulevards that sometimes cross one another in the city, with rows of shops on both sides and semi-open spaces with columns, sometimes with water flowing in the middle.

Let us convey the following information from the information sign about these roads called Columnar Street:

“In Perge, there are two pillared streets that divide the city into four so that the main streets of the Lower City intersect each other in the north-south and east-west directions. Of these, the main street of the city, which lies on the north-south axis of the Columnar Main Street, the Hadrianus Period in the south of the Acropolis on the slope of the Kestros Fountain (F3) extends for approximately 480 meters.

The street, which does not continue in a straight line, shows four slight breaks. The reason for this change of axis is attributed to the existence of important public buildings on the places where the street will pass before the construction and the existence of a pre-existing Hellenistic ”street. However, the street continues south towards the unexcavated area. The 22-meter-wide street is suitable for pedestrian and car traffic.

To the west of the street are 6.50 m. And to the east are 5.50 m. The base of the porticos has multicolored limestone marble and terracotta tessereas and geometric patterned mosaics. The average of 5.00 m behind the portico. lined up in depth shops.

The pedestals of the columns are of Attic-lon type without exception and they are all made of Prokonnesos marble. The postaments on which the column bases rest are made of limestone. Postaments are mostly square-rectangular but octagonal samples are also observed.

The shops behind the portos are 5.00 m. depth. 2.50 m. high-profile jambs and 0.50 m. with 3.00 m thick lintels. high entrances. In the middle of the street, which continues with a low elevation from the north, an open water channel passes through which can be defined as the original feature of the city.

The water flowing under the statue of Kestros on the Kestros Fountain (F3) at the foot of the Acropolis and filling the pool of the fountain was flowing into the canal connected by the pool from the middle of the street to the south of the city. The channel continues from the beginning of the street that continues south of the intersection after an interruption at the intersection. Channel; Hadrianus ends at the level of the beginning of Tacitus Street, south of the Arch. However, recent research has shown that the mentioned water channel continues parallel to the Columnar Main Street which is known to exist outside the Roman Gate in the south. The channel, which is made of external profiled limestone, has a width of 2.00 m and a depth of 0.78 to 1.20 m. ranged between. The bottom of the channel was covered with large limestone slabs. Another feature, It is divided into compartments by limestone blocks rising up to the upper limit of the building at approximately 8.00 m intervals. It is envisaged that its function is to reduce the flow rate of the water and ensure that the upper impurities settle to the bottom so that the flowing water remains always clean. Narrow bridges are placed on the canal that separates the street that it passes through in the middle, in order to provide crossing for the pedestrians. These were planned in a way that corresponds to the side streets that intersect the street vertically. The main wastewater channel of the city passes under the canal. It is envisaged that it is intended to ensure that the upper dirt will settle to the bottom and ensure that the running water remains clean at all times. Narrow bridges are placed on the canal that separates the street that it passes through in the middle, in order to provide crossing for the pedestrians. These were planned in a way that corresponds to the side streets that intersect the street vertically. The main wastewater channel of the city passes under the canal. It is envisaged that it is intended to ensure that the upper dirt will settle to the bottom and ensure that the running water remains clean at all times. Narrow bridges are placed on the canal that separates the street that it passes through in the middle, in order to provide crossing for the pedestrians. These were planned in a way that corresponds to the side streets that intersect the street vertically. The main wastewater channel of the city passes under the canal.

The street that extends between these two structures, MS in the city. II. It is thought that it was planned together with the monumental buildings at the beginning and end of the building in the first half of the 20th century.

The colonnaded street of Nymphauem and the water channel in the middle.

The water flowing through the middle of this median is often encountered today in the modern city of Antalya. Were they inspired by Perge?

Demetrius Apollonios Jewelry

At an important intersection point at the intersection of Sütbulu streets, there is a plug that has only the starting line. We obtain the following information from this excavation site plate:

Per Perge, which has a prominent place among the urban models based on planning, is the second with the Columnar Main Street and the east-west axis of the city! The excavations of this building, which is located at the intersection of the street in the position of Ord. Professor Dr. Completed by AM MANSEL. The second excavation president of the city. Dr. The building named as Demetrius Apollonios Takı by Jale İNAN is dated to the years 81-84 AD according to the section of «Gaius Caristanius Fronto and Lucius Vienus Longus, the financier of the same province, who sanctified the monument sonunda at the end of the votive inscription.

The monumental single arched plug reaches 11.00 meters in height, but the parts of the structure that have survived to this day are square pylon feet. On the other hand, almost all parts of the building were completely recovered and it was possible to carry out a complete restitution study.

The most important feature of the said triumphal arch is the cut pediment. The aforementioned arrangement reflects the earliest example of chronologically cut pediments. Doric and Ionic styles are used together in the monumental structure rising on two pylons. Both the eastern and western fronts of the ancient Greek dedication texts are read.

According to these inscriptions, the structure was devoted to the Kanun Imperial Law Order, the Apollon of Pamphylia, the Savior and Asylum Seeker Artemis Pergaia and the religious emperors, Perge of the Holy Neocorous City işit; «Artemis priest, demiourgos, young, adult and children gymnasiarkhosu, faithful emperors, patriots, virtue ‘all Apollonios son Demetrios and his brother Apollonios» was written by.

This is the current state of the insert overlap the restitution:

Demetrius Apollonios Jewelry
Nymphaeum and Observation TerraceFrom the information sheet about the Nymphaeum we get the following information:

Kuzeyinde To the north of the Columnar Main Street, the building leaning on the southern skirt of the Acropolis is a two-storey fountain-building complex that forms a “U”. The width of the limestone building is 21.00 m. The first floor of the fountain has reached to the present day partly from the first floor of 8.60 m., The second floor of 4.80 m. in height.

On both sides of the façade where the main fountain is located, the Acropolis is reached through two passages covered with cassette vaults. Adjacent to the aforementioned passages were made wings positioned forward. Today, there are three arched niches in the center of the fountain structure which is still standing.

In front of the niche, which looks like a window in the back, where the water flows, a statue of the river god Kestros was placed on the balcony-shaped façade.

Apart from the statue of Kestros, it has come from different statues. These include; The leading members of the Greek gods family are Zeus, Artemis and Apollon. “

Nymphaeum’s current state and restitution drawing.

In 2018, a stepped walkway leading up to the Acropolis just behind the Nymphaeum was built and at one stop there is a beautiful viewing terrace. While you are here, you should definitely go out here and enjoy the view from above.

View from the terrace looking.

 Palaestra When we

go down to the west and turn left, we arrive at the columned street that leads us to the west gate. It turns out to be a pretty arched walkway on the street and a Palaestra of quite large sizes, ie the sports area. The following information is given about this palaestra which has an exceptional structure:

Pala In the northwest of the city, Palaestra (Sports Academy / Training Dormitory), built on the southern skirts of the Acropolis, was constructed from neatly cut limestone blocks like other important public buildings of Perge. Excavation of the square planned and two storey building was not completed. However, in relation to the structure, it is possible to say that it is planned as an independent complex different from the gymnasium belonging to the Roman Period, and it is one of the most important palaestras of Anatolia in terms of its protection status and dimensions.

On the left is the entrance façade of the Palaestra and the arched passage ahead.

Apart from the northern wall, the east, south and west walls of the building are partially standing and have two entrances, one on the south side and the other on the west side. Excavations carried out under the direction of Antalya Museum Directorate in 2012-2013 revealed that there was a podium on the front of the southern façade of the building. 1.30 m in the east. The height of the podium, due to the difference in level of the street in the west is integrated with the floor. Approximately 2.60 m. wide podium, 0.70 m. height is supported by parapets. Parapets are equipped with semi-circular curves at standard intervals. Thus, the mass appearance of the structure was alleviated and the façade was mobilized visually and a pool / fountain was created considering aesthetic concerns.

In the middle of the door lintel and the inscription of the monumental structure in question, «C. It seems that Julius Cornutus and his wife dedicated the building to the emperor Nero »thus the building was built in the 1st century AD.

Palaestra’s entrance gate.

On the other hand, during the Imperial period, an aqueduct was attached to Palaestra organically connected to the east of the building to meet the increasing water needs of the city dwellers. The height of this aqueduct extending in the north-south direction is 4.25 meters. The east-west extension of the second arch height of 3.30 m. which feeds the water channel running parallel to West Column Street. Cadde

Mosaic Place

On the way to the west bath, a special mosaic floor was found in one of the places on the left. After the mosaics have been exposed, the room is covered with an iron fence to prevent damage. The information table provides the following information:

“In the South Portico of the Colonnaded West Street, which was opened in 2013, the walls forming the long sides of the space separated from the other shops are connected with a vault on the top. 6.00 × 7.30 m. The height of the building is 6.00 m.

Two different architectural phases were identified. The first of these is in oval form. The arrangement of which is in good condition is covered with colored marble. With a depth of 0.40 m, the frescoes on the walls of the building were added to the building in the 6th century AD. There are 4 warrior / hero figures in the center where a mythological composition is depicted on the floor of the place, which is the largest shop excavated in Perge. He raises the Iphigeneia, which the warriors grasp with his “Nephele” hands to the sky.

Three male figures standing close to each other on the left side are selected under the stage. According to the tags, the second figure should be “Agamemnon” and the third figure should be “Odysseus”. On the opposite side, “Achilleus” and “Aias” are symbolized. On the left is Achilles holding a spear. Next to the warrior stands Aias, whose helmet and spear can be selected. In the inscription on the left of the stage, which is the tags, the phrase: “Zoilos and Bkygos did / had it done (?)”

In the mosaic, a scene from the Trojan Wars, which marked the Antiquity, was portrayed: Agamemnon’s scene of sacrificing his daughter lphigenia. However, it was Nephele, not Artemis, who embraced and escaped Iphigenia on the stage of Perge. According to the story, Nephele was the first wife of Athamas. Athamas divorces Nephele to marry Ino, and the Cloud Goddess sends a golden-skinned coach to save her children.

The place was used as a presentation / sacrifice place with religious function in the 2nd century AD, and it was used more than a shop in the 5th and 6th centuries AD. It can be said that during the settlement of Eastern Rome (Byzantine) in the 16th century, it was turned into a holy spring or a healing place which served spiritual purposes ”

Mosaic space.

The subject of this mosaic must have been linked to the possibility that the founders of Perge were the ones who returned from the Trojan War.

West Gate, Western Bath and Caracalla Nymphaeum

We reach a small square at the end of the road. This square is just in front of the West Gate, another entrance to the city. To the left of the square is the Caracalla Nymphaeum, a fountain, with many statues in the Antalya Archaeological Museum. If it is a little above, there is a western bath which has not been opened yet.

West Gate

We learn about Caracalla Nymphaeum from the plate in the area:

Anıt A monumental pool was unearthed during the excavations conducted in 2014 under the direction of Antalya Museum Directorate at the point where the West Street and the North Bath face each other at the end of the Colonnaded West Street in Perge, one of the main stations of Pampylia. The facade of the building, which witnessed the magnificent past of Perge, is 15.00 m. The length of the pool is 2.50 m. as measured.

The monumental fountain rising on a three-step podium with a length of 18.00 meters has a semicircular plan. The fountain, leaning on the skirts of the Northern Bath, draws its water from the basins designed in the form of dolphins, which are fed by the canals from the same bath. On the other hand, another semicircular form is placed in the center of the parapet blocks that form the façade wall of the fountain.

Caracalla Nymphaeumu

The building, which has not been found in the history of excavations since 1946, has been named as «F5 Nymphaionu & Caracalla Fountain». The northern façade, the pool overlooking the Western City Gate and the statues of extraordinary beauty have given the city a high prestige among its contemporaries. Among these creations that represent outstanding examples of Perge plastic art; Apollon, Asklepious, Helios, Aphrodite, Nemesis, Selena, Tykhe, gods / goddesses, and well-known figures of Greek mythology characters such as Dioskur and Telesphorus are statues. These statues, all exhibited in the Antalya Museum, as well as the statue of Emperor Caracalla (217 AD) seized in the fountain, provided important clues to the dating of the building. ”

Western Bath

Theater

M. Edip Özgür’s book titled isi History and Mythology Trip with Perge Theater and Statues of Antalya Museum “is one of the best sources about Perge Theater. So I quote most of this section from this book:

“The most significant excavation area of ​​the ancient city of Perge, which is in the first pages of the history of the Anatolian excavations with its 65 years of excavation history, is undoubtedly the theater. theater as it is known that the main lines of the Antalya – Alanya highway 17km.’un Aksu subcontinent to the north and turn left to the ruins of the asphalt road to the left, the city’s first monumental ruins visited the theater. Koca Belen, located in the south-west of the city, rests on the eastern slope of the hill and has been well preserved except for the stage building. As in ancient times, the entrance is made from the south of the arched lower entrances called parados on both sides of the stage building. With the entrances (vomitoria) opening to the horizontal corridor (diazoma) between the rows of seats, the door in the middle of the uppermost gallery was to provide the entrance, with Perge Theater being the most streamlined audience among these numerous entrances and exits. With its architectural features and construction techniques, the Auditorium, which is of Greco – Roman type, where the audience is seated, consists of two sections. This area is slightly wider than the semicircle of 113.50 m. The auditorium, which can accommodate approximately 14,000 people, is surrounded by an arched gallery with Roman characteristics. The flat area is slightly larger than the semi-circle between the stage building and the rows of seats. This space is used to allow spectators to sit in the seats and actors to the stage building. century gladiator and wild animal fights are surrounded by a marble railing.

(…)

The performances in the theater were exhibited on a wooden platform. But for the Romans, gladiator fights and races were more fun than games. Theater fees were free to the multitude for the public. Officers would pay the costs to become popular and to get higher posts. The Romans liked the ridiculous games of rough language and jokes, often wearing leather masks showing the comic and tragic roles worn by Greek actors. Square, oval, fish and bird-shaped theater tickets are made of metal bone, there are signs on the sides showing the rows of seats. According to the present findings; one. century. In general, the theater İ.S. It was built in the first half of the 2nd century and it is understood that Plankia Magna, one of the noble ladies of the city, and her family is another gift to the city.

Excavation and restoration in the theater Dr. It was re-initiated by Jale İNAN in 1985, which was the beginning of a new era for theater. Since 1985, the new panels of the Dionysus frieze, which have decorated the podium of the stage building with the lower cavea and the orchestra, the balustrade plates that turn the orchestra, are important sections unearthed. Of these panels, the portrayal of the sea adventures of God is the most striking of the seized. Previously found and new architectural finds are exhibited in the area opposite the theater today. Among the highly embossed blocks with superior craftsmanship, the frieze showing the scene of the sacrifice is the most meaningful find of the last years and Tykhe, the goddess of fate, was depicted holding the idol representing Perge Artemis in her right hand. the architectural features of the stage building as well as the sculpture finds uncovered are the most striking examples of Anatolian archeology in recent years. The amazing monumental portrait statue of Alexander the Great, with a height of more than 3 m, is the only known of its type in the world. Perge Theater, which has the most unique place among the ancient theaters with its architectural and sculptural features, is looking forward to its restoration and its grandeur in the old days ”

There is also information about the theater on the plate:

Ge Perge theater leaning on the hillside of Kocabelen Hill was built in Greco-Roman style. The auditorium of the well-preserved theater is semicircular and extends to both ends. The theater, which was first built in the Greek type, was later transformed into a Roman type. As in all other antique theaters, the Perge theater; The Stage Building consists of three main sections: Orchestra and Seating Rows.

The high exterior wall of the stage building is reinforced with special arched support walls. The stage designed in Roman style is 52.00 m. long. In this part where more than one building phase was determined in the light of the researches, it was understood that the stage building was designed as two storey (MS 170-190), then the third floor was added (MS 193-211) and the process was re-processed according to the state of architectural construction and decoration. . The façade of the building, which is equipped with five doors in the center, which is larger than the others, is enlivened by the friezes of extraordinary beauty from the hands of the Compasses. Not all have been completed at a certain time,

The orchestra, which is located between the stage building and the rows of seats, has been interfered many times during the Roman Period. Orchestra radius of 52 feet, 12 Perge theater puts the finger is mentioned radius of Ephesus and the third row of the theater after the Aizonai similar structures in Turkey. MS III. century, gladiators during the struggle with wild animals in order to protect the audience surrounding the orchestra broadcast, a view of the banisters were added to the barrier.

Sitting Rows are divided into two by a diazoma. A total of 19 rows of seats beneath the middle road with the backed row at the end of the first stage, 12 radial stairways that intersect these rows; In the second step, there are 24 radial steps which cut them in 23 rows. The theater, which has a strong audience, has about 12,000 people. ”

Perge theater is one of the best I have seen, and therefore one of the most photogenic. After a busy trip, it is ideal to sit on the steps for a long time and imagine the ancient world.

RESOURCES:

Information signs in archaeological area

Anita Gillett, “Antalya and Its Surroundings”M. Edip Özgür, “History and Mythology Trip with Antalya Museum Perge Theater and Statues”

If you want to visit Perge with the delightful narration of Ayhan Sicimoğlu, you can apply to the address below. Ayhan Bey says things that will not happen occasionally, he makes mistakes, but we are still sick tik We also appreciated Ayhan Abi’s ability to provide some resources for archaeological restorations.

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