The Key to Visiting Museums as You Understand: Outline of Ancient Sculpture

In this article, I intend to go beyond my height and cut my mind about art history. Will art historians always talk about the history of architecture, and some historians of architecture, let the art history be parsley. Of course, we do not take our friends out of the so-called assembly, competent art historian who has valuable contributions to the field of architectural history.­čÖé

While traveling through ancient cities and museums, I would like to give you some tips that may help to make sense of the sculptures. There are great books written by very competent names on the subject. Let’s start with a few of them:
Some starting sources for the ancient Greek-Roman statue

Homer Bookstore should also be appreciated. They have provided very good publications in this field as well as in history.

My concern is not to create a similar source, but to have a deeper look at a museum or ancient city, to spend more meaningful time, and to give enough clues to your people. Or make a start. If you want more serious and good equipment, you should consult the above sources.

A statue can of course be viewed from very different perspectives. No, I don’t mean turning around. I mean, a statue,
– Wow, how realistic he looks, how he did it,
– The artist tried to convey the subject, story, emotion or thought in this sculpture,
– The date of this statue and the history of art history in the chronology, where it is located, how the general rules of art is related to,
– How much money is this, if I go into the smuggling industry,
– vsÔÇŽ
with countless thoughts. I usually like to spend time looking at each sculpture from these different perspectives if I have time. Except for real estate valuation and historical artifact smuggling tabi
And my favorite thing is to guess who the figures in the statue are, what periods and years they may belong to, without looking at the introductory information about the statue. If I come out occasionally, I guess I will feel the statue and the sculptor. Understanding is undoubtedly one of the greatest sources of human satisfaction.

Now, let’s start with this chronology before the sea. My scope here is Ancient Greek and some Roman sculptures. We also group these statues in 4 different chronological regions with a very, very rough distinction. But as I said, the issue is deeper. Each period has its own sub-periods or exceptions that do not have the characteristics of the period

bol -Archic Period Statue – 6th century BC –
Classical Period Statue  – 5 BC . – 4th century
-Helenistic Period Statue  – 3rd – 2nd centuries BC –
Roman Period Statue  – 1st – 2nd century AD As

I said, this is a very very rough period. Dates are also approximate dates. If you look at a more serious source, you can see that there were several periods before the Archaic, or that each of these periods had sub-periods. Anyway, I’m not such a serious source after all.

ARCHAIC SCULPTURE (6th Century BC)

This period is the period in which the art of sculpture in Greece hak let’s not injustice to the previous periods ama almost started. Sculptures of similar dimensions begin to emerge. The general characteristics of these statues are that they are quite static and frontal. It is thought that the Greeks took Egyptian art. Because GreekThe Egyptians had been painting, sculpturing, etc. for almost 2,000 years, while the infancy was crawling. They had a highly developed art world. But unlike the Greeks, because they were very isolated and conservative friends, there hasn’t been much change in their art for thousands of years. The Greeks began to develop and change the foundations of the sculpture that they had taken from the Egyptians at the beginning, with very similar principles, as we will see later.

If we continue with the general features of the archaic sculptures, we can say that their face and body configurations are lacking in detail, a little distant from reality and stylized. The face is symmetrical, the eyes are almonds, the eyebrows are stylized, and the most characteristic is a generally grinning mouth. I don’t know why, but all the Archaic statues were made with a meaningless smile on their faces. Some experts call it ÔÇťarchaic smile / grin, s├Âyl he says, because of some technical convenience or necessity. We know archaic sculptures immediately from this grin. It is not possible to see another expression on their faces – fear, anger, excitement. Usually we encounter stylized, little-detailed, pasta-like hair. If we come to the body, it is usually again detailed, simple lines shown in clothes, it is often a step of a foot stepping forward but still a heavy, immobile posture. Body parts such as muscles and knees are also stylized, unrealistic. In addition, as a rule, male figures – which are called kuros if they are not gods – are usually represented with naked clothes, while female figures – which are called korea if they are not goddesses – are represented by their clothes. Therefore, it is not possible for a nude female statue to belong to the archaic period. Let me address this issue of nudity if I don’t feel comfortable at the end of the article.
I’m putting some archaic statues downstairs. Pay particular attention to static posture, stylization, anatomical inexperience and ve archaic grin..

Archaic period sculptures. Left: A female statue, namely Korea, Middle and Right: Male statue, Kuros examples.

Finally, these sculptures are usually painted. The subject of painting is one of the most misunderstood subjects in ancient Greek sculpture and architecture. The noble stance of the white temples and statues impressed us very much, but these paintings were painted in their original condition – some of them so extreme.

ancient greek sculptures painted
A suggestion that an archaic chorea is painted today and in its original condition.
Yes, you should not get disappointed. ­čÖé
For more information on visual source and paint: web1
CLASSICAL SCULPTURE (5th – 4th centuries BC)Classical period includes a period in which Greek civilization peaked in many areas. Not only art, but in fact, at first thought, philosophy and science often attain the content on which the western world bases itself. The most brilliant politicians, thinkers and perhaps artists grow up in this period. Parthenon, one of the buildings that can be considered as a masterpiece in terms of both architecture and sculpture, was built. In fact, Phidias was one of the most important sculptors of this period and even of all periods.

Myron’s Discobolus
(Disc Thrower ), which we know from Roman copies , whose bronze original cannot be found, is around 450 BC.

In the second half of the classical period – or in the period when some called it ÔÇťSecond or Late Classicism – – about the fifth century BC – these rules began to stretch, ideal faces and postures were replaced by emotions and movements. The most important sculptor of this period is Praksiteles (400-330 BC), one of the leading figures in the history of sculpture. Lysippos and Apelles are also important sculptors of this period.

Johann Koachim Winckelmann (1717-1768), one of the founders of the history of art, described the difference between early and late classicalism or Phidias and Praxiteles:
ÔÇťWe can say that the art style that reaches the highest level with Phidias and other contemporary artists is magnificent and noble; In the period from Praksiteles to Lysippos and Apellese, we can say that the art style, which has reached an even higher level of subtlety and grace, is beautiful aktar (cited by Guerrini)
Magnificent and noble to beautifulÔÇŽ
In the meantime, it should be emphasized that in the Classical and Hellenistic periods, the Greeks made as many as bronze sculptures as well as marble. Even these metal sculptures looked much more vivid and impressive than marble. Unfortunately, very few of these metal statues have survived. In particular, the Romans melted these statues and used them to make other metal tools. Fortunately, they made copies of marble before melting a significant portion. Therefore, many of the sculptures we call Classical or Hellenistic works – but not all – are copies of the bronze original made by the Romans before they were melted. In fact, not only the bronze, but also the marble sculptures made by the Greeks, many of the marble is replicated during the Roman period.
Bronze statue of Poseidon or Zeus, around 460 BC,
Archaeological Museum of Athens.

The statue of Aphrodite in Knidos by Praksiteles – also called Aphrodite, Aphrodite and Knidia – is one of the most important and most replicated works of this period. The work is also important in terms of being the first woman statue that is completely naked in Greek art as well as many artistic levels.

A Roman replica of Knidos Aphroditi of Praksiteles (4th century BC).

It’s time, let’s talk, where does the Greeks’ obsession with nudity come from? In fact, the Greeks are not obsessed with nudity but with the ideal body, or with a broader definition of the ideal being. They have produced many systems of rules and proportions about how the body should be, as is the face, and what the ideal is. Therefore, the naked body means – for them – often – the visualization of the ideal man, not lust, sex. As in this sculpture, both in painting and in real life. For this reason, ancient Greek education is largely based on physical education, that is, the work of bringing the body to ideal proportions. Of course, since the Greeks are actually patriarchal hardcore, it is seen as a right granted only to men to exhibit this naked body in gymnasium, painting or sculpture for a long time. It is almost shameful that a woman is not naked and even goes out on the street without a companion. Except for Sparta. In a Spartan society that was extreme and contradictory in many ways, women, like men, had the right to exercise naked.

The sculptures of naked women, which were never seen in the Archaic period, gradually began to appear in the Classical period, but each time a part of the body was still covered. Until Praksiteles carved Aphrodite, who took off the clothes for bathing and displayed its ideal beauty boldly and with divine trust. It is said that this statue gained such a great reputation that people came to Knidos, the ancient city near today’s Dat├ža, from far away lands. To see Aphrodite. But not to hear lust, but to see it as a respect for ideal beauty.The classical period statue seems to have left behind the novices of the archaic period. Not only from the opposite, 360-degree perception of the type of works. Much more natural postures and moving figures are transferred to stone and bronze, not fixed posture or lying down. The sculpture of the classical period is also distinguished from the archaic style with a stance called ÔÇťcontrapost ├žo─čunlukla. In this posture, the body and head are slightly directed in different directions. As in the image below. There are still many expressions on the faces, but there is a much more realistic facial expression than the archaic period. As already mentioned above, the greatest aim of the Classical period is to achieve ideal face and body proportions.

An example of the contrapost posture is Doryphoros (Spear Bearer),
a Roman copy of Polykleitos’s work, dated to 440 BC.

STATUE OF HELENISTIC PERIOD (3rd – 2nd centuries BC)
The Hellenistic period is probably one of the most turbulent in the ancient world. After Alexander the Great, the spread of Greek, Hellenic culture to very large geographies and especially influencing the eastern cultures, at the same time affected them and gained a new character. New centers such as Pergamon emerge. Pergamon becomes the most important center of sculpture, especially Hellenistic art.
To summarize the general features of the Hellenistic sculpture, dynamism and dramatic expressions added to the figures towards the end of the classical period peaked in the Hellenistic sculpture. Emotions and movements are often exacerbated at the extremes. It may be called the Bar Baroque of ancient times ÔÇŁ, that is why the Hellenistic period. The exaggerated, twisted, S-shaped bodies of Contrapost are also features of the helenistic statue.
3 important works of the Hellenistic period. Lacoon and His Sons, Suicidal Galatian and Venus of Milo. They’re all Roman copies.
Every statue above has a great story, but it’s the subject of another article.

Kitto, a Greek professor, sums up the difference between classical and Hellenistic:

Unlike the classical period, in the Hellenistic period, ÔÇťsculpture begins to be introspection, to focus on personal characteristics, temporary soul rings rather than trying to express the ideal. In fact, he begins to describe people, not Man. Kit (Kitto, 2017)
SCULPTURE OF ROMAN PERIOD (1st – 2nd centuries AD )
Rome’s invasion of Greece from a small city-state to a gigantic civilization is an important break. Horatius wonderfully describes this fracture as follows:
Yunanistan Conquered Greece conquered the wild victors ÔÇŁ(Letters, 2.1.156)
There is not much concern about idealization in Roman sculpture.

What is meant to be explained here is the fact that Rome did not have a military superior but highly developed idea, art and culture. century, when he conquered Greece, he encountered the unique legacy of the Classical period and came under his influence. After this date, numerous works of Greek origin began to circulate in the Roman Empire, and the empire’s general understanding of art, even the world of thought, was heavily influenced by Greek. Conquest is conquered, in a sense.

Roman sculpture develops the understanding of art from ancient Greece and especially Hellenistic period without changing much. Maybe we can say it adds a little more realism. The statues are more like the owners. A bald, forehead man is described, for example, in a really bald, forehead. The idealization is only applied in the god-goddess and some emperor statues. However, the emperors are now identified by their hair or beard shape.Just as the Pergamon sculpture workshops played a leading role in the Hellenistic period, Aphrodisias and Perge were similar centers in Anatolia for the Roman statue.

Yes, finally, well, beautiful, to know the period in which a sculpture was made in real life.
REFERENCES:
web1: https://www.classics.cam.ac.uk/museum/collections/peplos-kore
Guerrini, Claudia. ÔÇťPraksiteles andÔÇť Beautiful Style ÔÇŁ, in: Ancient Greek, ed: Umberto Eco, Alfa, 2017
Kitto, HDF ÔÇťGreeks Alfa, Alfa, 2017

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